I have always watched film noir and the Golden Age classic films. Humphrey Bogart has been one of my favorites. There is just something special about old classic films. The glamor and excitement of nightclub parties, the music, and the iconic fashion of the times. Still to this day, I love all the timeless designs that are both elegant and fashionable. With a touch of glitter that makes any man’s head turn when a woman enters a room.
Bogart’s original “Rat Pack”, or “Holmby Hills Rat Pack”, was an informal group of actors and entertainers in the 1940s and 50s, known for their camaraderie, partying, and involvement in the Hollywood social scene. The Rat Pack was known for their parties and poker nights at Bogart’s and Bacall’s home in the elite, fashionable Holmby Hills neighborhood of Los Angeles. These parties were legendary in Hollywood and they became a gathering place for many of the biggest stars of the day. The parties were characterized by drinking, food, storytelling, music, cards, and a relaxed atmosphere where celebrities could let their guard down and enjoy each other’s company.
The group members included: Humphrey Bogart and his wife Lauren Bacall, Frank Sinatra, Judy Garland and her husband agent Sid Luft, David Niven, Clifton Webb, restaurant owner Mike Romanoff, agent Swifty Lazar, Rex Harrison, director George Cukor, writer Nathaniel Benchley, Cary Grant, Spencer Tracy, Katharine Hepburn, Angie Dickinson, songwriter Jimmy Van Heusen, Errol Flynn, Mickey Rooney, Nat King Cole, and Cesar Romero.
Cary Grant, actor, Rat Pack member
The gatherings attracted a who’s who of Hollywood stars, including Peter Lorre, Danny Kaye, Audrey Hepburn, Marilyn Monroe, Ava Gardner, Dean Martin, Jerry Lewis, Tony Curtis, Janet Leigh, Sammy David Jr, Robert Mitchum, Elizabeth Taylor, Lena Horne, Joan Bennett, John Huston, Richard Burton, writer Louis Broomfield, writer Nunnally Johnson, and others. These parties were known for their exclusive guest lists and the elite status of their attendees.
This original Rat Pack should not be confused with the later and more famous Rat Pack of the 1960s, which was composed of Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Sammy Davis Jr., Peter Lawford, and Joey Bishop, and their lady friends Marilyn Monroe, Angie Dickinson, Juliet Prowse, and Shirley MacLaine. This later group gained immense popularity and became synonymous with the term “Rat Pack” due to their performances in Las Vegas, movies, TV, and other appearances as a group.
Nat King Cole, singer, Rat Pack member
The story behind the name “Rat Pack” is that it was coined by Lauren Bacall. One night, after the group had returned from a trip to Las Vegas, Bacall looked at her husband, Humphrey Bogart, and their friends, and said, “You look like a goddamn rat pack.” The name stuck and the group of friends became known as the “Holmby Hills Rat Pack” or simply the “Rat Pack”. The original “Holmby Hills Rat Pack” was an informal group of friends, so there are fewer specific notable moments and events documented compared to the more famous 1960s Rat Pack. However, there are some anecdotes and instances that highlight the group’s camaraderie and influence in Hollywood.
Rex Harrison, actor, Rat Pack member
The group’s members were known to support each other’s careers. For example, Humphrey Bogart and Frank Sinatra appeared together in the 1955 film “The Desperate Hours.” Sinatra also had a cameo in the 1954 film “Sabrina,” which starred Bogart, William Holden, and Audrey Hepburn. Clifton Webb and Lauren Bacall starred together in “Woman’s World”. Lauren Bacall and Marilyn Monroe acted together in “How to Marry a Millionaire”. Angie Dickinson acted with Dean Martin in “Rio Bravo” and with Frank Sinatra and Martin in “Ocean’s Eleven”.
John Huston directed Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall in “Key Largo” and Bogart in “Treasure of the Sierra Madre”. Katharine Hepburn and Bogart starred together in “The African Queen” directed by John Huston. John Huston directed Humphrey Bogart and Peter Lorre together in “The Maltese Falcon” and “Beat the Devil”. Huston also directed Marilyn Monroe in “The Asphalt Jungle” and “The Misfits”. Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton were directed by Huston in “The Night of the Iguana”.
George Cukor directed Spencer Tracy and Katharine Hepburn in “Pat and Mike” and Judy Garland in “A Star is Born”. Spencer Tracy worked with Frank Sinatra in “The Devil at 4 O’Clock” and with Judy Garland in “Judgement at Nuremberg”. Tracy also acted with Joan Bennett and Elizabeth Taylor in “Father of the Bride” and “Father’s Little Dividend”. Joan Bennett acted with Bogart in “We’re No Angels”.
George Cukor, film director, Rat Pack member
While not an organized event, the Rat Pack members were often seen together at various social events and clubs around Hollywood, including the famous Brown Derby restaurant and the Mocambo nightclub. Their presence and camaraderie at these events contributed to their reputation and added to the group’s mystique.
Angie Dickinson, actress, Rat Pack member
The original Rat Pack was also known for their charitable work. For example, they organized a benefit at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles in 1955, which featured performances by Judy Garland, Frank Sinatra, and other stars. The event raised funds for the Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation.
Mickey Rooney, actor, Rat Pack member
Romanoff’s restaurant was a popular spot in Hollywood during the 1940s and 1950s where the Bogart led Rat Pack, as well as other famous actors and celebrities, often socialized. Owned by Mike Romanoff, an eccentric and charismatic figure who claimed to be a Russian prince, the restaurant was known for its luxurious atmosphere and fine cuisine.
Nathaniel Benchley, writer, Rat Pack member
The legendary icon Humphrey Bogart was the highest paid Hollywood star of his era and considered by many as the greatest movie star of all time. Bogart (1899-1957) was an American actor known for his distinctive voice and tough-guy persona. He appeared in numerous classic films throughout his career.
Bogart’s acting career began on the stage in the 1920s, with his Broadway debut in the play “Drifting” (1922). He played various roles on stage, often as a gangster, until the late 1920s when he transitioned to film. His first significant film role came in “The Petrified Forest” (1936), where he played the role of the gangster Duke Mantee. Bogart’s performance in the film earned him critical acclaim and helped establish his screen persona.
In the 1940s, Bogart’s career took off with a series of successful films. He starred in “High Sierra” (1941) and “The Maltese Falcon” (1941), but it was his role as Rick Blaine in “Casablanca” (1942) that truly solidified him as a Hollywood legend. The film, which won the Academy Award for Best Picture, is considered one of the greatest movies of all time, and Bogart’s performance remains iconic.
Bogart continued to star in classic films throughout the 1940s and 1950s, including “To Have and Have Not” (1944), “The Big Sleep” (1946), “Dark Passage” (1947), “Key Largo” (1948), “In a Lonely Place” (1950), “The African Queen” (1951), “Sabrina” (1954), and “The Caine Mutiny” (1954). For his role in “The African Queen,” Bogart won the Academy Award for Best Actor.
In his personal life, Bogart was married four times. His most famous marriage was to actress Lauren Bacall, whom he met on the set of “To Have and Have Not.” The couple married in 1945 and starred together in several films. They remained together until Bogart’s death in 1957 from esophageal cancer.
Throughout her career, Lauren Bacall was admired for her talent, beauty, and strong-willed persona both on and off-screen. Her contributions to the film industry during the 1940s and 1950s, as well as her association with the Holmby Hills Rat Pack, cemented her status as a Hollywood icon. Lauren Bacall (1924-2014) was an American actress and model known for her sultry voice and distinctive acting style. Bacall became an icon of Hollywood’s Golden Age and enjoyed a successful career spanning more than six decades.
Bacall’s career began as a fashion model before she was discovered by director Howard Hawks and signed a contract with Warner Bros. Her film debut came in 1944 when she starred opposite Humphrey Bogart in “To Have and Have Not.” Bacall’s sultry delivery of the famous line, “You know how to whistle, don’t you, Steve? You just put your lips together and blow,” made her an instant star.
The chemistry between Bacall and Bogart was palpable, and the two married in 1945, remaining together until Bogart’s death in 1957. Bacall and Bogart fell in love during the making of the film. They went on to star together in several other films, including “The Big Sleep” (1946), “Dark Passage” (1947), and “Key Largo” (1948). During the 1950s, their marriage remained strong, and they were considered one of Hollywood’s most iconic couples.
Throughout her career, Bacall appeared in numerous films and stage productions, earning critical acclaim and various awards. Some of her other notable films include “How to Marry a Millionaire” (1953) with Marilyn Monroe and Betty Grable, “Designing Woman” (1957) with Gregory Peck, and “Murder on the Orient Express” (1974).
Bacall also enjoyed a successful career on Broadway, winning Tony Awards for her performances in the musical “Applause” (1970) and the comedy “Woman of the Year” (1981). In 2009, she received an honorary Academy Award in recognition of her contributions to the motion picture industry.
Lauren Bacall’s autobiography, “By Myself,” was published in 1978 and won the National Book Award. An updated version, “By Myself and Then Some,” was released in 2005, which included additional details about her life and career.
Friendship with Frank Sinatra: After Humphrey Bogart’s death in 1957, Bacall became close with Frank Sinatra. They were rumored to have been romantically involved and there were even reports of a brief engagement. However, their relationship ended abruptly, and Bacall later recounted the details of their relationship in her autobiography, “By Myself.”
Frank Sinatra (1915-1998) was an American singer, actor, and producer. Known for his smooth, distinctive voice, and timeless songs, Sinatra became one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century.
Sinatra began his music career in the 1930s as a singer with various big bands, most notably with Harry James and Tommy Dorsey. He rose to fame as a solo artist in the 1940s, signing with Columbia Records in 1943. Sinatra quickly gained a reputation as a talented crooner and his popularity soared with hits such as “All or Nothing at All,” “I’ll Never Smile Again,” and “I’ve Got a Crush on You.”
In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Sinatra’s career faced a downturn. However, he made a remarkable comeback in 1953 with his Academy Award-winning performance in the film “From Here to Eternity.” This success revitalized his music career and he signed with Capitol Records, where he recorded some of his most iconic albums, including “In the Wee Small Hours” (1955), “Songs for Swinging’ Lovers!” (1956), and “Come Fly with Me” (1958).
Married couple singer, actor, Frank Sinatra and actress Ava Gardner
Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Sinatra continued to enjoy success in both music and film. He starred in movies such as “The Man With the Golden Arm” (1955), “High Society” (1956), “Pal Joey” (1957), and “Ocean’s 11” (1960). He also founded his own record label, Reprise Records, in 1960, which allowed him more creative control over his music.
During this time, Sinatra was a central figure in the “Rat Pack,” a group of entertainers that included Dean Martin, Sammy Davis Jr., Peter Lawford, and Joey Bishop. The Rat Pack performed together in Las Vegas, appeared in films, and became synonymous with the glamorous, hard-partying lifestyle of the era.
Sinatra continued to perform and record music throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, albeit at a slower pace. He released his final studio album, “Duets,” in 1993. Over the course of his career, Sinatra received numerous awards, including 11 Grammy Awards, a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, and a Presidential Medal of Freedom.
Sinatra’s 1960s Rat Pack
In his personal life, Sinatra was married four times, most notably to actress Ava Gardner and later to Mia Farrow. Frank Sinatra’s career spanned more than five decades, and his music and films continue to be celebrated by fans around the world.
Judy Garland (1922-1969) was an American actress, singer, and performer known for her powerful voice and captivating stage presence. Garland became a major Hollywood star during the Golden Age of cinema and her work in film, television, and music left a lasting impact on the entertainment industry.
Garland’s career began at a young age when she performed with her sisters as part of the Gumm Sisters vaudeville act. The family eventually moved to California and Garland signed a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) in 1935. She changed her name to Judy Garland and made her film debut in the short film “Every Sunday” (1936) alongside Deanna Durbin.
Garland’s breakthrough role came in 1939 when she starred as Dorothy Gale in “The Wizard of Oz.” Her heartfelt performance and her rendition of the song “Over the Rainbow” made her an instant star and she received a special Academy Award for her outstanding performance as a screen juvenile.
Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, Garland appeared in numerous successful films, including “Meet Me in St. Louis” (1944), “The Harvey Girls” (1946), “Easter Parade” (1948), and “A Star Is Born” (1954). Her performance in “A Star Is Born” earned her an Academy Award nomination for Best Actress. Despite her professional success, Garland faced numerous personal challenges, including struggles with addiction, mental health issues, and failed marriages. These struggles eventually led to her departure from MGM in 1950.
In the late 1950s and 1960s, Garland focused on her career as a singer and concert performer. She made a successful comeback with the film “A Star Is Born” (1954), which earned her an Academy Award nomination for Best Actress. She starred in her own television series, “The Judy Garland Show,” which aired from 1963 to 1964. In addition, she made several acclaimed concert appearances, including her legendary 1961 concert at Carnegie Hall, which was recorded and released as a live album, “Judy at Carnegie Hall.” The album won multiple Grammy Awards, including Album of the Year and Best Female Vocal Performance.
Garland was married five times and had three children, including actress and singer Liza Minnelli. Her turbulent personal life often overshadowed her professional achievements, and her struggles with addiction contributed to her untimely death at the age of 47. In 1997, she was posthumously awarded a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award and her recordings continue to be cherished by fans around the world.
Judy Garland’s legacy endures as one of the most talented and beloved performers in the history of American entertainment. Her films and recordings continue to captivate audiences and her powerful voice remains a symbol of the Golden Age of Hollywood.
Married couple Sid Luft and Judy Garland
Spencer Tracy (1900-1967) was an American actor known for his naturalistic acting style and versatility. Over his career, which spanned more than four decades, Tracy became one of Hollywood’s most respected and accomplished actors.
Tracy’s acting career began in the 1920s with stage performances and he made his Broadway debut in 1930. He transitioned to film in the early 1930s, signing a contract with Fox Film Corporation. His first significant film role came in “Up the River” (1930) directed by John Ford and co-starring Humphrey Bogart.
In 1935, Tracy signed with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), where he enjoyed a long and successful partnership with the studio. Over the years, he starred in numerous critically acclaimed films, including “San Francisco” (1936), “Captains Courageous” (1937), “Boys Town” (1938), “Father of the Bride” (1950), “Bad Day at Black Rock” (1955), and “Inherit the Wind” (1960).
Tracy’s on-screen partnership with Katharine Hepburn, which began with “Woman of the Year” (1942), became one of the most celebrated in film history. They appeared in nine films together, including “Adam’s Rib” (1949), “Pat and Mike” (1952), and “Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner” (1967) which was Tracy’s final film role.
Spencer Tracy received numerous awards and honors throughout his career. He won two Academy Awards for Best Actor, for his roles in “Captains Courageous” and “Boys Town,” and was nominated for the award a total of nine times. This record still stands as the most nominations for any actor in the Best Actor category.
In his personal life, Tracy was married to actress Louise Treadwell from 1923 until his death in 1967, and they had two children together. However, Tracy’s long-term romantic relationship with Katharine Hepburn, which began in the 1940s and lasted until his death, was widely known in Hollywood circles, despite both actors’ efforts to maintain their privacy.
Spencer Tracy’s exceptional acting abilities and commitment to his craft made him one of the most revered actors in the history of American cinema. His performances continue to be celebrated and studied by film enthusiasts and actors alike.
Irving Paul “Swifty” Lazar (1907-1993) was an American talent agent and dealmaker, known for representing some of the biggest names in the entertainment industry during his time. With his signature thick-framed glasses and a reputation for being a shrewd negotiator, Lazar became a prominent figure in Hollywood.
Swifty Lazar initially pursued a career in law, graduating from Fordham University School of Law in 1931. He began working as an attorney in the entertainment industry, representing clients like Warner Bros. and Twentieth Century Fox. Lazar transitioned from being a lawyer to a talent agent in the 1940s, and it was during this time that he earned his nickname “Swifty” for his ability to quickly close deals for his clients.
Lazar’s client list included some of the most prominent names in Hollywood, such as Humphrey Bogart, Lauren Bacall, Gene Kelly, and Cole Porter, as well as literary figures like Ernest Hemingway, Vladimir Nabokov, and Truman Capote. His talent for negotiation and deal-making helped him secure lucrative contracts for his clients in both the film and publishing industries.
Lauren Bacall and Swifty Lazar
Swifty Lazar was also well-known for his annual Oscar parties, which were held at the famous Spago restaurant in Los Angeles. These parties were attended by the who’s who of Hollywood and became a staple of the Oscar night festivities.
In addition to his work as an agent, Lazar made occasional appearances in films and television shows, often playing himself or a character based on his real-life persona. One such appearance was in the 1954 film “A Star Is Born” starring Judy Garland and James Mason.
Swifty Lazar’s influence and connections in the entertainment industry made him a powerful figure in Hollywood and his legacy lasts as one of the most successful talent agents of his time.
Jimmy Van Heusen
Jimmy Van Heusen (1913-1990) was an American composer and songwriter known for his memorable melodies and collaborations with some of the biggest names in the music industry. Over the course of his career, Van Heusen wrote music for numerous films, television shows, and stage productions, and he became one of the most successful and celebrated songwriters of the 20th century.
Van Heusen started his music career by playing piano in local bands and composing songs during the 1930s. In 1940, he moved to Hollywood to pursue a career in composing for films. Van Heusen’s career took off when he began collaborating with lyricist Johnny Burke. Together, they wrote many popular songs for films, including “Swinging on a Star” which won an Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1944. Their partnership continued through the 1940s and 1950s, producing numerous hits for artists like Bing Crosby and Frank Sinatra.
In the 1950s, Van Heusen began a new collaboration with lyricist Sammy Cahn. The duo enjoyed immense success, composing songs for films, television shows, and stage productions. They created many memorable songs for Frank Sinatra, such as “Come Fly with Me,” “My Kind of Town,” and “High Hopes,” the latter of which won another Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1959.
Sinatra and Van Heusen
Throughout his career, Van Heusen received numerous awards and accolades. He won four Academy Awards for Best Original Song and was nominated for the award an impressive 14 times. He also won an Emmy Award for his work in television and was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame.
In his personal life, Van Heusen was known for his friendship with Frank Sinatra and he was a member of Sinatra’s inner circle, which included other notable figures like Dean Martin and Sammy Davis Jr. He was also known for his active social life and his reputation as a ladies’ man.
Jimmy Van Heusen’s contributions to the world of music have left a legacy and his songs continue to be celebrated and performed by artists around the world.
David Niven (1910-1983) was a British actor, author, and soldier known for his charm, wit, and sophistication. Niven appeared in more than 100 films over the course of his career, earning a reputation as one of Hollywood’s most popular and respected actors.
Niven was educated in England and attended the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst before serving in the British Army during the 1930s. He eventually made his way to Hollywood and began his acting career, appearing in small roles in films like “Barbary Coast” (1935) and “Mutiny on the Bounty” (1935).
His breakthrough role came in “The Charge of the Light Brigade” (1936), after which he began to receive more substantial parts in films like “The Dawn Patrol” (1938) and “Wuthering Heights” (1939). Niven’s career was interrupted by World War II, during which he served as an officer in the British Army, participating in the D-Day invasion and other military campaigns.
Lauren Bacall, David Niven, Humphrey Bogart
After the war, Niven returned to acting and enjoyed a highly successful career in both British and American films. Some of his most notable films include “A Matter of Life and Death” (1946), “The Bishop’s Wife” (1947), “The Moon Is Blue” (1953), “Around the World in 80 Days” (1956), “Separate Tables” (1958), and “The Guns of Navarone” (1961).
In 1958, Niven won an Academy Award for Best Actor for his role in “Separate Tables.” He continued to act in films throughout the 1960s and 1970s, including memorable performances in “The Pink Panther” (1963) and “Murder by Death” (1976).
In addition to his acting career, David Niven was a successful author. He published his autobiography, “The Moon’s a Balloon” in 1971, which became an international bestseller. He also wrote a collection of humorous and anecdotal stories about Hollywood, titled “Bring on the Empty Horses” (1975).
Niven was married twice and had four children. He was known for his charm, elegance, and wit, both on and off the screen, and he remains an iconic figure in the history of film.
Katharine Hepburn (1907-2003) was an American actress known for her strong-willed characters, independent spirit, and distinctive voice. Over her six-decade-long career, Hepburn became one of the most celebrated and respected actresses in Hollywood, earning a record four Academy Awards for Best Actress.
Hepburn attended Bryn Mawr College, where she studied history and philosophy before deciding to pursue a career in acting. She began her career on stage, making her Broadway debut in 1928 with a small role in “Night Hostess.” In 1932, she made her film debut in “A Bill of Divorcement” starring opposite John Barrymore.
Hepburn’s career took off in the 1930s with roles in films like “Little Women” (1933), “Morning Glory” (1933), for which she won her first Academy Award, and “Alice Adams” (1935). Despite her early success, Hepburn faced a period of career decline in the late 1930s and early 1940s, with a series of box-office failures leading her to be labeled “box office poison.”
Katharine Hepburn and Humphry Bogart in the film “African Queen”
Determined to revive her career, Hepburn took control of her own destiny by acquiring the film rights to the play “The Philadelphia Story” (1940) and selling them to MGM with the stipulation that she would star in the film adaptation. The film was a major success and Hepburn’s career was back on track.
Throughout the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, Hepburn continued to appear in successful films, including “Woman of the Year” (1942), “Adam’s Rib” (1949), “The African Queen” (1951), “Pat and Mike” (1952), “Summertime” (1955), “The Rainmaker” (1956), and “Suddenly, Last Summer” (1959). She also formed a famous on-screen partnership with Spencer Tracy with whom she appeared in nine films over 25 years.
Hepburn won additional Academy Awards for her roles in “Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner” (1967), “The Lion in Winter” (1968), and “On Golden Pond” (1981). She continued to act in films and on television into her 80s, with her final film appearance in “Love Affair” (1994).
In her personal life, Hepburn was known for her independent and unconventional spirit. She famously eschewed traditional gender norms, often wearing pants and no makeup. Hepburn never married but had a long-term romantic relationship with Spencer Tracy which lasted until his death in 1967.
Katharine Hepburn’s legacy endures as one of the greatest actresses in the history of American cinema. Her fearless and authentic approach to her roles and her life made her a role model for generations of actresses and fans alike.
Clifton Webb’s contributions to the world of film and theater have left a lasting impression. He is remembered for his unique blend of sophistication, wit, and charm, which made him a memorable and engaging performer both on stage and on screen.
Clifton Webb (1889-1955) was an American actor, dancer, and singer. He enjoyed a successful career on stage and in film, earning three Academy Award nominations for his acting.
Webb began his career as a dancer and performer in vaudeville and on Broadway. In the 1910s and 1920s, he became a well-known dancer, often performing with his mother, Mabelle, as his partner. He transitioned to acting in stage productions, and by the 1930s, he had become a fixture on Broadway, appearing in plays such as “As Thousands Cheer” (1933) and “The Man Who Came to Dinner” (1939).
Clifton Webb made his film debut in the silent film “Polly With a Past” (1920) but did not achieve significant success in Hollywood until the mid-1940s. His breakthrough role came when he was cast as the acerbic, sophisticated villain Waldo Lydecker in the film noir “Laura” (1944). His performance earned him an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor and launched his career as a film actor. Webb went on to appear in numerous films, often playing characters marked by their wit, sophistication, and sometimes, their villainous streaks. Some of his most notable films include “The Razor’s Edge” (1946), “Sitting Pretty” (1948), “Cheaper by the Dozen” (1950), “Stars and Stripes Forever” (1952), and “Titanic” (1953). He earned two more Academy Award nominations for his roles in “Sitting Pretty” and “The Razor’s Edge.”
Lauren Bacall, Clifton Webb, Marilyn Monroe
Throughout his career, Webb maintained a close relationship with his mother, who was often his companion at social events and lived with him until her death in 1960. Despite speculation about his personal life and relationships, Webb remained private about his romantic life.
Bogart: In Search of My Father, Stephen Bogart, Dutton, NY, 1995.
By Myself, Lauren Bacall, Knopf, NY, 1975.
Get Happy: The Life of Judy Garland, Gerald Clarke, Random house, NY, 2001.
His Way: The Unauthorized Biography of Frank Sinatra, Kitty Kelly, Bantam, 1986.
Humphrey Bogart, Nathaniel Benchley, Little Brown, NY, 1975.
Me: Stories of My Life, Katharine Hepburn, Knopf, NY, 1991.
The Moon’s Balloon, David Niven, Hamish Hamilton, London, 1971.
The Rat Pack: Neon Nights and the Kings of Cool, Lawrence J. Quirk and William Schoell, Taylor Publishing, 1998.